Organic chemistry is sub-discipline that deals with the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds that contain carbon in covalent bonding either synthetic or naturally occurring.
It studies the uses of instruments and method development used to separate, identify, and quantify matter. Analytical chemistry includes classical, wet methods and modern, instrumental methods. Classical qualitative methods use separations such as precipitation, extraction, and distillation. Identification may be based on differences in color, odor, melting point, boiling point, radioactivity or reactivity. Classical quantitative analysis uses mass or volume changes to quantify the amount. Instrumental methods may be used to separate samples using chromatography, electrophoresis or field flow fractionation, Then qualitative and quantitative analysis can be performed, often with the same instrument and may use light interaction, heat interaction, electric fields or magnetic fields. Often the same instrument can separate, identify and quantify the analyte.
It is the study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of the principles, practices, and concepts of physics such as motion, energy, force, time, thermodynamics, quantum chemistry, statistical mechanics, analytical dynamics and chemical equilibrium. Physical chemistry, in contrast to chemical physics, is predominantly (but not always) a macroscopic or supra-molecular science, as the majority of the principles on which it was founded relate to the bulk rather than the molecular/atomic structure alone (for example, chemical equilibrium and colloids).
Deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds. This field covers all chemical compounds except the organic compounds (carbon-based compounds, usually containing C-H bonds), which are the subjects of organic chemistry. The distinction between the two disciplines is far from absolute, as there is much overlap in the sub-discipline of organometallic chemistry. It has applications in every aspect of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, pigments, surfactants, coatings, medications, fuels, and agriculture.
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGY
It is a diverse and new emerging branch of science. in recent years there has been a trend towards the increased commercialization of various renewable energy sources. Rapidly advancing technologies can potentially achieve a transition of energy generation, water and waste management, and food production towards better environmental and energy usage practices using methods of systems ecology and industrial ecology.
It comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy, it converts raw materials (oil, natural gas, air, water, metals, and minerals) to various products.
NANOCHEMISTRY It is the combination of chemistry and nanoscience. It is associated with the synthesis of building blocks, which are variable in size, surface, shape and defect properties. Nanochemistry is being used in chemical, materials and physical, science as well as engineering, biological and medical applications. Nanochemistry and other nanoscience fields have the same core concepts but the usages of those concepts are different.
Phytochemistry can be considered sub-fields of botany or chemistry. It is the study of phytochemicals, which are chemicals derived from plants. Those studying phytochemistry strive to describe the structures of a large number of secondary metabolic compounds found in plants, the functions of these compounds in human and plant biology, and the biosynthesis of these compounds. Plants synthesize phytochemicals for many reasons, including to protect themselves against insect attacks and plant diseases. Phytochemicals in food plants are often active in human biology, and in many cases have health benefits.
MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY (PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY).
It is the study of drugs, and it involves drug development which includes drug discovery, delivery, absorption, metabolism, and more. There are elements of biomedical analysis, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. Pharmaceutical chemistry work is usually done in a lab setting.
Biological Chemistry is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms, Biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life.
Biochemistry is closely related to molecular biology, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which genetic information encoded in DNA is able to result in the processes of life.
Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions, and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life. The findings of biochemistry are applied primarily in medicine, nutrition, and agriculture.