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Vol: 01

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INDEX

Proceeding

The Libyan Conference on Chemistry and Its Applications

(LCCA 2019)

TITLE                                                                                                            PAGES

Inhibition Mechanism of adsorption and thermodynamic of 304 stainless Steel Using Isobutyl methyl ketone semicarbazonein Acid Medium: Imperiyka, M. Hammad 1

Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Organic Conjugated Molecules for Electronic Devices: Saadeldin Elamin Taher 5

Studying Metallic Electrochemical Corrosion Control: Huda A. Salem 9

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Gelatin by usingMicrowave-Irradiation : Randa Fawzi Elsupikhe 18

Determination of Acetylsalicylic Acid in Different Brands of  (75 & 100 mg) Aspirin Tablets marketed in Libya Using Test of Uniformity of Total Weights of Tablets and Back Titration Method: Mukhtar H.Mohamed Abdulmalek 25

Impacts of multi-pollution sources of groundwater on health and environment in Ras Almingar area, Benghazi-Libya : Saad K. El Ebaidi 29

Environmental Geochemistry of Beach sands at Al Hariqa Petroleum Harbor, Tobruk – NE Libya : Eihab A.S.Mohamed 33

Preparation and Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Ligand Complexes of Some Divalent Transition Metal Ions: Ahmed N. Hammouda 41

Investigation and Antibacterial Activity of Libyan Macroalgae Ulva fasciata: Salmin K. Alshalmani 48

Determination of Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of Some Botanical Oils by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry : Fathia A. Mosa 52

Use of Erythropoietin therapy in correction of anemia inhemodialysispatients: An association with morbidity or benefits : Ekram Barakat Ben Sauod 59

Novelty of wnt signaling pathway as a potential differentiation based therapyof human malignantneuroblastoma: Maati M. Elghuol 70

Inhibition Mechanism of adsorption and thermodynamic of 304 stainless Steel Using Isobutyl methyl ketone semicarbazonein Acid Medium

Abstract:

The inhibition efficiency of corrosion on 304 stainless steel using isobutyl methyl ketone semicarbazones as inhibitor has been studied using weight loss, and scanning electron microscopy. The inhibition efficiency, corrosion rate, the nature of anchoring sites and the adsorption characteristics have been determined from the results. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the inhibitors concentration.In general IE% increases with increasing the temperature.It was found that the synthesized compound behaved as good inhibitor with high inhibition efficiency, which is 88.08%. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the stainless steel surface obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm.Scanning electron spectroscopy is used to examine the surface morphology of stainless steel samples both in the presence and absence of inhibitors at optimum conditions. Scanning electron microscope reveals the formation of a smooth, dense protective layer in the presence of inhibition.

Electrochemical and Optical Properties of Organic Conjugated Molecules for Electronic Devices

Abstract:

The characteristic of a new heterocyclic organic compound is reported. This compound, which is related to the 3-(2,3-dihydro-[1,4]diselenino[2,3-c]thiophen-5- yl)-8-(2,3-dihydro-[1,4]diselenino[2,3-c]thiophen-7-yl)-1,10-phenanthroline dmit2 (2- thioxo-1,3-dithiol-4,5-dithiolato) structure, has prepared chemically and distinguished by using cyclic voltammetry experiments with iR compensation and electronic absorption spectra. This compound has polymerized successfully on the working electrode surface yielding polymer with reasonable band gap and sensible stable to the anodic conditions, the scan rate test proves that the polymer is not diffusion limited.

Studying Metallic Electrochemical Corrosion Control.

Abstract:

The acid corrosion inhibition characteristics of organic compounds were studied, using qualitative and quantitative Spectrophotometric analysis. The data of absorption spectra were also interpreted to study the inhibition mechanisms. The investigated organic compounds acted as inhibitors for Fe and Zn in acidic medium by mechanisms of physical and chemical adsorption and their efficiency different with their molecular structure. The chemical analysis can be fruitful used for prediction and monitoring of internal corrosion “Electrochemical corrosion”. The Spectrophotometric analysis was suitable technique for studying electrochemical corrosion processes, by determination and monitoring of metal ion concentration produced due to oxidation or metal corrosion. The UV-Vis Spectrophotometrictechnique introduced simple reasonable analytical procedure to study corrosion inhibition characteristics and mechanisms by electron donor organic compounds especially in acidic medium, when corroded metal surface is correspond to charged metal ion Mn+. The optimum organic inhibitor concentrations for metal protection in acidic environment can be determined through protection “efficiency” that calculated as reduction of metallic ion concentration due to combination with inhibitor molecules to form complex compounds.

Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Gelatin by using Microwave-Irradiation

Abstract:

Nano-scale (less than 100 nm) materials have received wide attention because of their rare properties that differ significantly from a bulk sample of the same material. In this research, a physical irradiation method by using Microwave irradiation was established for preparation colloids silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with an eco-friendly stabilizer (Gelatin) to prevent the agglomeration between the nano-particles. The preparation process was carried out using silver nitrate (AgNO3) in aqueous Gelatin at room temperature. However, the effects of Microwave irradiation time and the concentrations of Ag+ and Gelatin on the particle size have been investigated. The Ag-NPs are effectively shaped as demonstrated by the greatest surface plasmon resonance creates at 450‒480 nm as shown by uv-vis spectroscopy. The results showed that, the Microwave–irradiation can influence on the Ag-NPs size, which the size of Nps decreases with the Microwave–irradiation increases. The good condition of Microwave – irradiation method for synthesis of Ag-NPs were 40 min irradiation time, 0.2M AgNO3 and 2 % Gelatin, which give a high absorption in uv-vis spectroscopic results. Moreover, the theoretical equation demonstrated the average diameter ofAg-NPs was about 5 nm at the optimum conditions.The AgNPs/Gelatine that synthesized by using microwave irradiation could by using asAntibiotic.

Determination of Acetylsalicylic Acid in Different Brands of (75 & 100 mg) Aspirin Tablets marketed in Libya Using Test of Uniformity of Total Weights of Tablets and Back Titration Method

Abstract:

The study involves quantitative analysis of five different brands of 75 and 100 mg
aspirin tablets marketed in Ajdabiya (Libya), which are dubbed BA-1, BA-2, BA-3,
BA-4 and BA-5. The analytical analysis used were twomethods; test of uniformity of total weights of tablets and back titration method. All analysis were conducted in the Laboratory of
Department of Chemistry at Ajdabiya University. In test of uniformity of total weights of tablets, 10 tablets were chosen randomly and found all results of total weights of tabletsfor different brands were in the permitted weight according to U.S Pharmacopeia. Therefore, uniformity of contents test was conducted using back titration method. In ttest, to decide whether the difference between the means of ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) contents and a known value(75 mg & 100 mg), only the means of (BA-1 and BA-5 are exceed critical values that indicate there are difference between experimental means with target or known values.In contrast, in BA-2, BA-3 and BA-4, calculated values are less than critical values. Precision of the results of BA-3 only were low (SD= 6.436 mg, RSD= 7.609%, CV= ±2.878 mg), it may indicate the spread of ASA contents in BA-3 was significantly
variable

Impacts of multi-pollution sources of groundwater on health and environment in Ras Almingar area, Benghazi-Libya

Abstract:

The aim of this paper was to highlight the size of the large pollution resulting from the uncontrolled dumping of waste in a natural sinkhole of the Middle Miocene groundwater aquifer of Benghazi Formation. The waste types are an aviation fuel from Bregah Oil Company for Marketing, together with waste of sewage water, garbage and other plastic materials from the residents in Almingar area. Water quality parameters in Ras Almingar area were contaminated and mostly unsafe for drinking and human use, as well as in agricultural and industrial purposes even after purifying. Analysis showed that > 90 % of the water sample is classified as a large quantity of fossil fuel spill in the sinkhole contain high percentages of Naphthalene content 1.45 % and Aromatic content 15 %. The total Sulfur content 0.04 wt. %, density at 15 C 0.8156 kg/L, residue 1 %, total acid number 0.009 mgKOH/g, flash point 50 °C, freezing point -53 °C, smoke point 25 mm, viscosity 4.77 mm2 /s, Electrical Conductivity at 22 °C 67 ps/m. All have profound impacts on the environment and the growing recognition of serious risks to surface-water and groundwater quality. The bacteriological analysis was carried out using the microbiological standard for analysis of water for total and faecal coliform count and showed mono-specific bacteria (Escherichia coli) < 0.5 ml/per colony unit. A sample of a private water well was completely contaminated with sewage and the residents of the area do not use it for any purposes due to high pollution. In general, the water situation in particular at study area is associated with health problems and environmental risks.

Environmental Geochemistry of Beach sands at Al Hariqa Petroleum Harbor, Tobruk - NE Libya

Abstract:

The present research aims to determine the concentration of heavy metals in beach sands at Al Hariqa harbor, Tobruk, NELibya. The studied samples were collected from three stations from the Al Hariqa harbor. The chemical analysis of the samples includes a group of heavy metals which are “As, Cd, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Cr, Pb, Hg and Se”, by using ICP-MS technique. In the beach sands, the average values of Pb, Cr, As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Co and Se (73.98, 477.5, 4.58, 1.08, 334.4, 291.4, 11.81, 335.5, 92.79 and 0.12ppm, respectively) are much higher than the elemental composition of typical uncontaminated soil (10, 25, 1, 0.06, 50, 20, 5, 50, 25 and 0.08ppm, respectively) The Igeo values suggest that the studied beach sands are very lightly polluted with Cu, Zn, Co, Ni, Cr and Se (grade 2), lightly polluted with As and Hg (grade 3) and highly polluted with Cd and Pb (grade 5).

Preparation and Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Ligand Complexes of Some Divalent Transition Metal Ions

Abstract:

The mixed ligand complexes ofdivalent transition metal (Co, Ni, Cu, and Cd) have been synthesised by using 1-phenylazo-2-naphtholas a primary ligand (L1 ) and Catechol as a secondary ligand (L2 ). All prepared complexes were identified and confirmed by elemental analyses (C, H, and N), molar conductance measurements, IR, Vis-Uv, and EPR spectroscopic. The data of elemental analysis suggest the 1:1:1 [M: L1 : L2 ] ratio. The measurement molar conductance of the complexes indicates their non-electrolytic nature. IR spectra show the coordination sites of the free ligand with the central metal ion. The electronic absorption spectral data revealed the existence of an octahedral geometry for Co(II) and Cd(II) complexes and a square planar geometry for Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The EPR spectra of Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes supported their geometrical structures which confirmed by the electronic absorption spectra. The metal ion, ligands, and complexes have been tested on antibacterial activity against three strains of pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Investigation and Antibacterial Activity of Libyan Macroalgae Ulva fasciata

Abstract:

Marine macroalgae are considered as an excellent source of bioactive compounds which has a broad range of biological activities including antibacterial and antioxidant. The qualitative phytochemical screening of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate extract of Ulva fasciata revealed the presence of Carbohydrates, Steroids, Flavonoids, gums and mucilage, Tannin & Phenols, Saponins, Proteins, and glycosides in both extract .Antibacterial activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate extract of Ulva fasciata from Benghazi coast was evaluated against both Gram positive and Gram negative human pathogens bacteria by agar well diffusion method.The results indicated that this species of seaweed collected from the coast of Benghazi present a significant capacity of antibacterial.

Determination of Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of Some Botanical Oils by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry

Abstract:

The objective of this study was todetermine in vitro the sun protection factor (SPF) of some botanical oils.In this study, the absorption values of oils of plants that including: rosemary, basil, thyme, chamomile, rose, clove bud, ginger, carrot, andcamphorwere measured using the ultraviolet spectrophotometer and then the Mansur equation was applied to calculate SPF values for eachbotanical oil. The sun protection values of theseoils were in the range (2.0 – 9.1). Comparing the values of SPF, the best SPF value was to botanical oil of chamomileat9.1.Correspondingly, SPF value of camphor oil was found to be at 8.5.Ginger oil also showed high SPF at 7.1. The other values ranged from 2.0 (carrot oil)to5.5 (thyme oil).Thelowest SPF value was to carrot oil. Natural botanical oils are well-known for their beneficial health effects, mainly as moisturizing, scenting and anti-oxidizing so that they are used in formulations of creams and lotions.This study will help to select the best oils in sunscreen manufacturing.This study can alsocontribute to reduce organic UV-filters content insunscreen formulations by a suitablebotanical oil selection and the implementation of different strategiesto design products as sunscreens. All the botanical oils that are used in this research are purchased from prominent local Libyan company in this field (Al Madina for Perfumes, Oils and Ornaments).

Use of Erythropoietin therapy in correction of anemia inhemodialysispatients: An association with morbidity or benefits

Abstract:

Background:Anemia is a frequent complication of Chronic kidney disease (CKD). The problem had been solved by the development of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). our objectivesTo identify the epidemiological characteristics, risk factors that contribute to the ESRD and associated comorbidities of patients on regular hemodialysis at Benghazi 2018and tosummarize the use of erythropoietin therapy in treatment of anemia in hemodialysis patients and whether there are evidence for the benefits or are at greater risks of complications associated with its use.Patients & Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted from medical records and by direct personal interview for CKD patients on hemodialysis at Benghazi- Libya. A convenient sample of 150 patients. Results & conclusion: Male is predominant. M :F ratio was 1.9 : 1 and Mean age 49.4 years, SD 16.18, minimum age 8 years, maximum age 86 years & duration of hemodialysis 1-5 years in most of patients, while only 14.6% on hemodialysis more than 15 years. The most common cause of CKD were hypertension followed by unknown cause and congenital diseases of kidneys Erythropoietin therapy given for all patients for correction of anemia mainly IV infusion in (89%) of patients and there were an improvement in quality of life in majority of patients (88 %) & only (12%) of patients were no improvement in quality of life. Hence, we concluded the therapy with use of erythropoietin with partial correction of anemia has been shown to be effective well tolerated and safe and decrease the risks of blood transfusion, and the benefits of EPO therapy overweigh the drawbacks and risks.

Novelty of wnt signaling pathway as a potential differentiation based therapy of human malignant neuroblastoma

Abstract:

The discovery of a signaling pathway that more susceptibly effects in tumorigenic cells are still a critical target, needed in most malignant diseases. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor that mainly affects infants. Neuroblastoma with high-risk stages is extremely heterogeneous and aggressive metastases. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of signaling pathway on malignant neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Through the utilization of gene expression profiling, this has performed using Human Affymetrix microarray model. Additionally, Gene Ontology analysis coupled with (D.A.V.I.D) database evaluated the major biological significant pathway. Interestingly, the data obtained provided evidence that wnt signal pathway has ability to act as mediators of genes encoded proteins participating in regulator of neuron differentiation mechanism and development of the undifferentiating malignant SH-SY5Y cells to a neuronal phenotype state. Furthermore, the advanced technology on the transcription level displayed wnt signaling pathways hold promise as therapeutic a strategy to combat the neurological diseases

Vol: 02

Index

INDEX

Proceeding

The Libyan Conference on Chemistry and Its Applications

(LCCA 2019)

TITLE                                                                                                                                              PAGES

Chemistry of H2S Scavengers for Application in Arabian Gulf Oil (AGOCO) Export Crude Oils: Iftikhar Ahmad 77

Chemicalcomposition, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and some minerals contents of date kernel from Libya: Sultana Hussein 82

Estimation the concentration of iron, nickel and copper in    some samples of consumed cars oil: Hamade M. Adress Hasan 89

Assessment of the efficiency of disinfectants used in some Benghazi hospitals: Mahmoud. S. Ben-Saud 93

Hydrochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Surface Water: A Case Study of the Al Dabosia and Al Hufara Springs, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, NE Libya: Fares F. Fares 98

Ascorbic acid as green corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solutions: A. A. Idress 102

Biochemical alterations in gasoline workers exposed to benzene at the Libyan petroleum stations in Tajoura City: Ghada M. Salem 108

Synthesis and Characterization New Schiff Base Derivatives and Their Complexes with Cu (II) and Fe (II): Dalal M. Ibrahima 113

Adverse Effect of Chronic Exposure of Fuel among Petrol Filling Workers in Benghazi-Libya: Mudafara S. Bengleil 119

Removal of Lead(II) ions from Aqueous Solutions by Batch Biosorption of Acid/ Microwave Irradiation Activated Carbon Pine Cone Powder: Awad F. Elsheikh 123

Chemistry of H2S Scavengers for Application in Arabian Gulf Oil (AGOCO) Export Crude Oils - Iftikhar Ahmad

Abstract:

The presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a known problem within the petroleum industry. H2S is extremely toxic at low concentrations and pose serious health and safety problems. Moreover, H2S is highly corrosive and can degrade both process and storage equipment, potentially reducing throughput and enhancing the difficulty and cost of integrity management programs. This results in significant additional operating costs, particularly with respect to increased corrosion, higher pipeline failure rates, and souring of produced oil and gas. The off-spec products can lead to difficulties in meeting customer commitments and in accumulation of unsalable inventory. In order to mitigate the effects of hydrogen sulfide, chemical scavengers are often applied. Proper treatment of H2S with an appropriate H2S scavenger improves safety, environmental compliance, product quality and process integrity management. However, application of the appropriate chemistry requires knowledge of the impact of system parameters, such as temperature and pH, on the performance of the scavenging chemical. The selection criteria of H2S scavengers for particular application are described in this paper. The advantages and disadvantages of using the various chemicals for scavenging H2S in produced fluids are compared in this paper

Chemicalcomposition, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition and some minerals contents of date kernel from Libya - Sultana Hussei

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proximate chemical composition, some chemical characteristics, fatty acid composition and finally, some minerals for three cultivars of date kernel namely (Saidy Galo, Degla and Baidawy) in Libya. The concentrations of proximate chemical composition (%) ranged as follows: moisture (4.70-5.50), crude fat (7.70-8.90), crude protein (6.67-7.66), ash (0.89-1.09), crude fiber (18.60-20.25), carbohydrates by difference (59.42- 56.60). The chemical properties of date kernel oils were evaluated as follows: Baidawy cultivar recorded the lowest values for, free fatty acid, iodine value, saponification number and non-saponifiable matter. Saidy Galo cultivar recorded the highest values for free fatty acid, iodine value and saponification number and non-saponifiable number. Gas-liquid chromatographyrevealed that the major unsaturated fatty acids were oleic and linoleic acids, while the major saturated fatty acids were palmitic and myristic acids for all cultivars. We have used flame atomic absorption spectrometry technique for determination of the concentration of some minerals (Na, P, Cu, Mn, Cd , Mg, Pb, Fe and Zn), the results revealed that potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus were the highest minerals content, while the lead and iron were the lowest minerals content in the date kernels.

Estimation the concentration of iron , nickel and copper in some samples of consumed cars oil - HAMADE .M. Adress .HASAN

Abstract:

The car oil is an important component of car motors , In addition to the physical changes that affect on the oil after its use there are also chemical changes which may be affect on the oil structure and it cause of pollution problem . It does not depend on its use inside the motor , but it may reach to the drinking water and the other enviromental types, in addition to the possibility of access to the contents of heavy metals in areas around wastes of consumed oils . In this study was conducted to detecte some of heavy elements ( nickel , iron and copper ) . The results of the applied method showed good linearity regression (r2 = 0.99 ) and very low limit of detection (LOD) values , the used method indicated that , the used standard solutions were very sensitive . The contents of the selected heavy metals in samples were determine by using spectrophotometer , the content of Ni +2 in in car oil samples were ranged between 0.73 to 1.69, while the content of Cu +2 were ranged from 4 to 10 ppm and the content of Fe +3 0.025 ppm to 0.056 ppm .

Assessment of the efficiency of disinfectants used in some Benghazi hospitals - Mahmoud. S. Ben-Saud

Abstract:

The most specialists and people have known, microbes are the life-threating factor. Therefore, the world is working hard to reduce them, and this is ongoing work in search of materials and effective and safe on human health to reduce the spread of microbes, as these substances and know the disinfectants, which is very in turn according to the active ingredient. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of antiseptics used in some Benghazi hospitals to kill pathogenic bacteria. Six disinfectants have taken from each of the total disinfectants used. In cooperation with the Infection Control Center (ICC) of each hospital. The study targeted the Benghazi hospitals (Al-Jala, pediatric and Benghazi medical center). Where most of them had a good effect with a few defective in the results. Disinfectants are Steranios, Korsolex, Aniosyme, Actosal Flache, Surfanios, Kohrsolin FF, Bactinyl-N, Bactinyl Spray, Bactinyl Sanitize, Bactinyl Main, InstruPlus Forte, Kohrsolin FF, Actoclean Perfect, Actosed Fort Ready, Surfa’safe, Zain, Betadine, and Hexanios.The efficacy of these disinfectants tested on gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas, E.coli, Acinetobacter, Proteus and Klebsiella. Gram-positive bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus. The disk diffusion method is the most common method used to measure the efficiency of disinfectants in this study. The results showed that the Zain (H2O2), InstruPlus fortand Surfanios Sdisinfectant was highly efficient in killing bacteria. The moderate effectobserved by Steranios, Korsolex, Aniosyme, Actosal Flache, Bactinyl-N, Bactinyl Spray, Bactinyl Main, Actoclean Perfect, Surfa’safe, Betadine, and Hexanios. However, Kohrsolin FF, Bactinyl Sanitize andActosed Fort Ready showed low effective against bacterial used. This is due to the different concentrations used in the hospitals in this study, collecting statistical Descriptive and inferential data include analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and (LSD) for analysis data of disk diffusion method in additional P-value (Hypothesis tests) showed. It has to verify the disinfectant product before using it by the reference laboratory based on the correct concentrations, which ensures the removal of all contaminants and pathogenic bacteria.

Hydrochemical and Microbiological Assessment of Surface Water A Case Study of the Al Dabosia and Al Hufara Springs, Al Jabal Al Akhdar, NE Li

Abstract:

The main objective of this work is to evaluate the water of the Al Dabosia and Al Hufara springs in terms of hydrochemical and microbiological characteristics. These springs are located in the Al Jabal Al Akhdar, NE Libya. In general, the water is suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, but it should be noted that the slight increase in lead (Pb) and alkalinity (Alk) values should be treated. From the two springs, two replicate of water samples from different water levels were analyzed for bacteriological investigation. The results have reviled that an average of 30 cfu/ml of bacterial growth was recorded in Al Hufara spring, whereas Al Dabosia spring did not show bacterial growth in to the samples that were taken from the water surface, however, the samples that were taken from the bottom of the basin showed an average of 20 cfu/ml of bacterial growth. The water samples did not show contamination with Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms.

Ascorbic acid as green corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel in hydrochloric acid solutions - A. A .Idress

Abstract:

The investigation of nature-designed molecules as possible inhibitor candidates for reinforcing carbon steel is of raising interest due to the health and environmental hazards involved in the use of most inorganic corrosion inhibitors. This study investigates pitting inhibition with ascorbic acid (AA), by weight loss technique. The results showed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing the inhibitor concentration, while it decreases with increasing the temperature. The adsorption of(AA) on the carbon steel surface obeys Temkin adsorption isotherm. Some thermodynamic parameters were calculated and discussed.

Biochemical alterations in gasoline workers exposed to benzene at the Libyan petroleum stations in Tajoura City - Ghada M. Salem

Abstract:

Gasoline station workers spend a great deal of their time in the direct exposure to toxic substances such as benzene and by products of gasoline combustion. Such occupational exposure increases multiple adverse health risks. This study aimed to evaluate biochemical alterations among petrol station workers. Thirty one gas station workers and 31 non-oil work civil servants serving were recruited as exposed and control subjects, respectively. Plasma samples were analyzed and compared for biochemical tests of kidney and liver function between two groups. The mean± SD of serum creatinine (mg/dL) and blood urea nitrogen levels were significantly increased (0.7 ± 0.2 versus 0.6 ± 0.1, P = 0.005), and (16.2 ± 4.3 versus 12.6 ± 3.1, P = 0.0002) in the benzene exposed group compared with the unexposed group, respectively. Similarly, benzene exposed subjects had significantly higher levels of serum total bilirubin. (mg/dL) (0.7 ± 0.3 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, p = 0.0005), ALP (IU/L) levels (99.4 ± 47.4 vs 64 ± 28.9, p = 0.0004), AST (IU/L) and ALT (IU/L) levels were compared with the unexposed subjects. In conclusion, our results found that prolonged exposure to benzene may lead to higher risk of developing hepatic or renal related disorders. Therefore, protection and frequent medical attention should be given to petrol stations workers.

Synthesis and Characterization New Schiff Base Derivatives and Their Complexes with Cu (II) and Fe (II)- Dalal M Ibrahima

Abstract:

In recent years, discovering new compounds that have biological activity were studied by many researchers. In this paper, four metal complexes have been synthesized from Cu (II) and Fe (II) chloride and ligands 2-((3-nitrophenylimino) methyl) phenol (HL1) and 2-((4-nitrophenylimino) methyl) phenol (HL2) in 1:2 M ratio. FTIR and molar conductance measurements were used to characterize the structure of complexes. The complexes were found to be non-electrolytic on the basis of molar conductance studies. The metal complexes have also been tested for their PH activity at different concentrations by used Response Surface Method.

Adverse Effect of Chronic Exposure of Fuel among Petrol Filling Workers in Benghazi-Libya - Mudafara S. Bengleil

Abstract:

Although petroleum products are the most important sources for energy but they may cause different side effects to human due to the risk of contamination of the environment. The individual most frequently exposed to contamination are those working in petroleum industries and petrol filling stations due to their long exposure to gasoline and inhalation of the fuel smell for a long time. The present study was undertaken to assess the extent of damage caused by the chronic inhalation of petrol fumes on hematopoietic of petrol filling worked in different stations throughout Benghazi. The study was carried out on 30 adult male as a study group and 15 as a control group. Hematological estimation was done at University Laboratory and Microsoft Excel was used as a statistical data program. Results obtained confirm that all blood parameter respected were within the normal range and this finding was differs from that obtained in other studies which found significant changes in the level of haemoglobin, white and red blood cells counts. Although no blood disorders were detected in the present study, full attention in medical surveillance of workers by performing further studies should carried out in different stations in different area in Libya.

Removal of Lead(II) ions from Aqueous Solutions by Batch Biosorption of AcidMicrowave Irradiation Activated Carbon Pine Cone Powder - Awad F

Abstract:

Although petroleum products are the most important sources for energy but they may cause different side effects to human due to the risk of contamination of the environment. The individual most frequently exposed to contamination are those working in petroleum industries and petrol filling stations due to their long exposure to gasoline and inhalation of the fuel smell for a long time. The present study was undertaken to assess the extent of damage caused by the chronic inhalation of petrol fumes on hematopoietic of petrol filling worked in different stations throughout Benghazi. The study was carried out on 30 adult male as a study group and 15 as a control group. Hematological estimation was done at University Laboratory and Microsoft Excel was used as a statistical data program. Results obtained confirm that all blood parameter respected were within the normal range and this finding was differs from that obtained in other studies which found significant changes in the level of haemoglobin, white and red blood cells counts. Although no blood disorders were detected in the present study, full attention in medical surveillance of workers by performing further studies should carried out in different stations in different area in Libya.